Darwin and Facial Expression

Ekman, Paul ed., 1973. Darwin and Facial Expression: A Century of Research in Review. New York and London: Academic Press, Inc.
"Päritud harjumused" - inherited habits on see printsiip Darwini kolmest printsiibist, mis ei pea vett ja ainsana ei ole semiootiline.

Ekman, Paul 1973a. "Introduction". Darwin and Facial Expression: A Century of Research in Review. Ekman, Paul ed. New York and London: Academic Press, Inc. Pp. 1-10
To my knowledge there has been no thorough study of facial expressions of emotions shown in the cinema of different nations, or in commercial or amateur still photographs, or in family albums, although such a study might be interesting and relevant. (Ekman 1973a: 8)
Chevalier-Skolnikoff, Suzanne 1973. "Facial Expression of Emotion in Nonhuman Primates". Darwin and Facial Expression: A Century of Research in Review. Ekman, Paul ed. New York and London: Academic Press, Inc. Pp. 1-89
Because of the impossibility of recording everything, data recording must be selective. Such selection results in an interpretative rather than a completely objective record. This is even the case with film or videotape records, since the choice of when to film is itself selective. Furthermore, the total context, which includes smells and activities occurring on the hidden side of the animla, is often missed in a film record. (Chevalier-Skolnikoff 1973: 17)
Audiovisuaalne materjal on ette selektiivne. Kendoni suudlemiraundide uurimuses oli see eriti ilmekas, sest kaugele põõsaste taha peidetud kaamera nägi ainult ühte pingil istuva paarikese seljatagust ja nägu vaid juhul kui nad olid teineteise poole pöördunud.
Each facial expression consists of what van Hooff (1962) calls "expressive elements." Expressive elements are anatomical features (such as the ears, eyes, or mouth) in a particular position (i.e., toward, wide open, closed). The use of checklists of facial elements to describe facial expressions, such as van Hooff's (1967), facilitates systematic collection and comparison of data. Furthermore, the recent development of frame-by-frame analysis of motion-picture film and videotape (employed by van Hooff, 1967, and Chevalier-Skolnikoff, 1971, in press) has also augmented the accuracu and detail of descriptions of facial expressions, particularly when they involve movement. (Chevalier-Skolnikoff 1973: 18)
Vrd. "väljenduslikke elemente" Birdwhistelli kineemidega.
...nonvisual communication...(Chevalier-Skolnikoff 1973: 20)
In animal studies, communication is generally defined as behavior in one animal, the sender, which evokes a response ina nother animal, the receiver. [...] The question of whether the behavior is intentional or not is generally evaded, since no method has been devised as yet to tell what an animal is thinking. This is, nevertheless, an important question... (Chevalier-Skolnikoff 1973: 21)
Sure it is, especially in relation to communication.
FIG. 2. Results of the cluster analysis of chimpanzee behavior:
  • "Play": Relaxed open mouth; Gnaw-wrestle; Grasp poke; Pull limb; Gymnastics; Gnaw; Hand-wrestle; Gallop; Mount;
  • "Aggression": Tug, Brusque rush; Bite; Grunt-bark; Shrill bark; Arm-sway; Stamp; Hit; Stamp-trot; Trample; Sway-walk;
  • "Affinity": Pant; Mouth-mouth; Smooth approach; Embrace; Smooth touch; Hold out hand; Silent-pout; Cling; Mount-walk; Groom; Groom-presentation; Autogroom; Mount-presentation; Genital investigation; Male mating; Stretched pout-whimper; Pout-moan; Silent bared-teeth; Crouch-presentation; Watch;
  • "Excitement": Rapid "Oh oh"; Squat-bobbing; Rising hoot; Vertical head shake;
  • "Submission": Bared-teeth-scream; Bared-teeth-yelp; Crouch; Hesitant approach; Shrink, flinch; Upsway; Avoid; Flight; Parry;
(From van Hooff, 1971)
Groups are structured in such a way that each animal holds a particular position in the troop in terms of its ability to assert its will or to dominate others. This aspect of social organization is called the dominance hierarhy [rank order]. Once dominance relationships are established, each animal in a troop knows its relationship to every other animal. Since the behavior of an animal is related to its dominance, its behavior can be predicted, and such predictable social ordering keeps conflict at a minimum. (Chevalier-Skolnikoff 1973: 24)
Thus the precise function of a signal is context-bound, and its precise "meaning" applies only to a particular situation (Shirek-Ellefson, 1967). This functional context-dependency of emotional expression is an extremely important concept, for it is only in conjunction with context that affect expressions can coordinate social interactions. (Chevalier-Skolnikoff 1973: 28)
...one cannot accurately call a behavior "determined by inheritance" (or by the genes, or any other single factor), since multiple systems of the animal and multiple aspects of the environment are involved in producing all behaviors. (Chevalier-Skolnikoff 1973: 30)
Näitlejate tööd juhib ka stsenaarium, ja juhuslikud tingimused.
[näide antiteesist:] ...gaze aversion, a common signal of mild submission, is a striking reversal of the stare, which is a component of all threat displays. (Chevalier-Skolnikoff 1973: 31)
Charlesworth, William R., and Kreutzer, Mary Anne 1973. "Facial Expressions of Infants and Children". Darwin and Facial Expression: A Century of Research in Review. Ekman, Paul ed. New York and London: Academic Press, Inc. Pp. 91-168
A person can possess an ability (a competence) to do something, but whether he does it at all during his life depends upon many performance factors that serve as necessary conditions for the ability to be made manifest. Such factors include attentional skills, persistence, memory, the right audience, and motivation. In testing for abilities, a good diagnostician will do his best to optimize testing conditions in order to insure that the negative aspects of these factors do not work to obscure the individual's abilities. (Charlesworth & Kreutzer 1973: 99)
Another distinction made in this chapter is the division between the expression of emotions on one hand and the recognition of expressions on the other. The former refers to the expressive behaviors themselves, whereas the latter refers to an individual's sensitivity to the expressive behavior of others. To illustrate, the infant may smile only when she smiles, but not respond at all when she frowns or has a neutral expression, thus revealing that he recognizes the difference between her smile and her other facial expressions. (Charlesworth & Kreutzer 1973: 104)
Surprise has been discussed by some writers as an epistemic emotion - one involving the relation between an individual's knowledge or expectations about a particular stimulus and what the stimulus actually turns out to be. [...] Epistemic: a word derived from the Greek pertaining to knowledge or the conditions for acquiring it. Epistemic emotions refer to those emotions such as interest, curiosity, boredom, and surprise, which have to do with what the individual already knows or desires to know. (Charlesworth & Kreutzer 1973: 117)
Coyness has more of a flirtatious social element, whereas shame has more of a cognitive element - the awareness of having transgressed against a rule. Embarrassment, in contrast, seems to involve more awareness of one's own appearance. Furthermore, shame and embarrassment seem to be more situation-dependent, whereas shyness can be viewed more or less as a persistent personality trait. (Charlesworth & Kreutzer 1973: 119)
A somewhat surprising finding is Berne's (1930) report of a positive relation between IQ and teacher ratings of lack of affection in nursery school children. This could be a reflection of the more intelligent child's greater inependence and his greater immersion in activities at preschool, resulting in fewer social contacts. (Charlesworth & Kreutzer 1973: 133)
Ordinarily when a child assesses an individual's emotions, he has a wealth of cues in addition to a fixed facial expression. He sees the patterning of the facial expression from its onset to its peak with concomitant grosser body movements, and sometimes with verbal statements. These cues are supplemented by his knowledge of the context of the emotional response, and sometimes, by knowledge of the individual's past behavior and general dispositional traits. (Charlesworth & Kreutzer 1973: 147)
In addition to preventing a decline in facial activity with age, Thompson claimed that social mimicry served to stylyze facial expressions. Evidence for this claim was the fact that sighted children showed less variability in facial expression than blind children, visual experience presumably having the effect of shaping a person's expressions to conform to more standardized expressions of others. (Charlesworth & Kreutzer 1973: 153)
...instrumental expressionf of anger (hitting, kicking)... (Charlesworth & Kreutzer 1973: 155)
...some form of internal model - a visual, kinesthetic proprioceptive image... (Charlesworth & Kreutzer 1973: 159)
Ekman, Paul 1973b. "Cross-Cultural Studies of Facial Expression". Darwin and Facial Expression: A Century of Research in Review. Ekman, Paul ed. New York and London: Academic Press, Inc. Pp. 169-222
While we suggest that the face is the chief, if not the only site for muscular movements that are unique to one or another specific emotion, we do not mean that the face shows only emotional expressions. Quite the contrary. The ace is the site for illustrators (e.g., the brow movements as an accent mark), for regulators (primarily with glancing) and also for emblems, such as winks and tongue shows. (Ekman 1973b: 182)
Probably the greatest source of confusion between emblems and emotional expressions is that some emotional expressions may be modified and transformed into emblems. How, then, do we distinguish between an emotional expression and an emblematic expression? We need to consider both the appearance and usage of each, and we must also define a middle ground between the emblematic and emotional expression - the sumlated expression. A simulated expression is avoluntary attempt to appear as if an emotion is being experienced. If it is well done, then most people who see it will be misled and think they are seeing an emotional expression, not a simulation. A simulation is used either to conceal the fact that no emotion is felt or as a mask to cover one feeling with the appearance of another. (Ekman 1973b: 182-183)
...a simulated expression is enacted when a person wants to mislead another as to his feeling, and if performed skillfully is very similar to the expression of a felt emotion, while the emblematic expression is a stylezed version of the expression, which is used to state or mention an emotion but to convey the impression that it is not being experienced at the moment. The emblematic expression is noticeably different in appearance from both the actual emotional expression and the simulation. (Ekman 1973b: 183)
Two quite different research approaches have been used to study the question of whether there are universal facial expressions of emotion. The first method entails systematically sampling, on film or videotape, facial behavior shown in a particular situation by people in two or more cultures, and then measuring in some fashion the facial muscular movements shown by the people in each culture to determine whether they are similar or different. We shall call this method the components approach, since it studies whether the actual components of facial expressions shown in two or more cultures are the same or different. The second method entails showing examples of facial expression to people in different cultures and determining whether they interpret a facial expression as signifying the same or a different emotion. This method (which we will call the judgement approach, since it studies whether people from different cultures will judge the same emotion when viewing the same facial eppearance), was first used by Darwin, as we noted earlier, but not in his cross-cultural studies. (Ekman 1973b: 188)
The problem of recording facial expressions is threefold: the costs of film and videotape, the need to take the record unobtrusively so that the subject is not made self-conscious, and the determination of how much of the facial behavior to record. Measurement is probably the most difficult problem, as the face is a complicated expressive system, quickly changing into various appearances. Until quite recently there has been little agreement about how to measure facial expression, and the investigator has had to invent his own measurement scheme. (Ekman 1973b: 188)
Petrinovich, Lewis 1973. "Darwin and the Representative Expression of Reality". Darwin and Facial Expression: A Century of Research in Review. Ekman, Paul ed. New York and London: Academic Press, Inc. Pp. 223-256
The doctrine of special creation, in addition to insisting on the existence of an impassable discontinuity between the various animal species (and the especially between man aht the "lower" animals), strenuously insisted on the immutability of species: that all species are unchangeable, and that they were created during the six days of Genesis when they were endowed by a munificent creator with their essential physical structure and mental abilities. The mental life of animals was held to be entirely instinctive, and only man had the faculty of reason. While some theologians were puzzling over the problem how a pair of all of the known species could fit into the Ark, Darwin was collecting and organizing evidence to establish the doctrine of evolution. (Petrinovich 1973: 224)
One of the leading philosophers of the day who wrote on evolution as early as 1850 was Herbert Spencer. Spencer formulated an evolutionary associationism in which the association of ideas operated phylogenetically. If such associations are repeated often enough, the cumulative effects are inherited by successive generations. Thus, there is an inheritance of acquired traits, by this process associations become instincts. He was among the first to elaborate the conception that the mind is what it is because it has had to cope with particular environments. Spencer had a strong impact on psychology through his influential Principles of Psychology (1855), but Darwin (1887) denied that he derived any conscious profit as a consequence of Spencer's writings because the philosophical methods employed lacked an empirical base and were, therefore, of no scientific use. (Petrinovich 1973: 225)
Wundt, in Germany, and his student, Tichener, in the United States were quite influential in the developing science of psychology, and are important in the present context in terms of their views on methodology. They represented the school that was known as structuralism, the aim of which was to discover the contents of the mind and, in this way, to deliniate the structure of consciousness. Tichener defined psychology as "experience dependent on an experiencing person." He sought to reduce mind to its elements and discover the laws by which the elements combine. Tichener considered psychology to be an extension of the scientific method to a new field of inquiry and believed that the subject matter (and, ideally, the methods) of the two science, physics and psychology, were essentially the same: that physics studies the world without reference to man, while psychology studies the world with reference to the person who experiences it. (Petrinovich 1973: 236)
Most psychological research has employed what Bruniswik calls systematic design, in which a relatively small number of variables is chosen for study, and then these variables are systematically manipulated. The ideal of this method is to hold all variables constant but one, to vary it systematically then control it and to allow another to vary, and so forth. This manner of proceeding is regarded by most scientists as representing an optimal strategy. (Petrinovich 1973: 244)
The meaninf of individual differences within the framework of systematic design also deserves comment. Since external conditions are treated as random error variance and are treated "quasy-systematically by computational elimination." Individual differences are, thus, considered as unwanted error variance produced by a lack of control of relevant factors. (Petrinovich 1973: 245)


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