Nonverbal Communication In Human Interaction

Knapp, Mark L. 1972. Nonverbal Communication In Human Interaction. New York [etc.] : Holt, Rinehart and Winston

For some, kinesic study includes touch behavior; for others, however, actual physical contact constitutes a separate class of events. Some researchers are concerned with touching behavior as an important factor in the child's early development; some are concerned with adult touching behavior. Subcategories may include: stroking, hitting, greetings and farewells, holding, guiding another's movements, and other, more specific instances. (Knapp 1972: 7)
Further testimony to the prevalence and importance of nonverbal communication is available if we scrutinize specific facets of our society: the use of nonverbal cues in psychiatry, teaching the deaf, doctor-nurse communication during operations, disturbed nonverbal communication, audience-speaker nonverbal communication, advertising, music, our use of time, art, pictures, dance, nonverbal aspects of written and printed language, nonverbal cues in deceptive communications, communication across cultures, communication across ethnic groups within a culture, drum and whistle languages - the list is interminable. This same idea can be illustrated by briefly noting the role of nonverbal communication in four areas: televised politics, classroom behavior, behavioral research, and courtship behavior. (Knapp 1972: 13)
Classroom Behavior. The classroom is a veritable goldmine of nonverbal behavior which has been relatively untapped by scientific probes. Acceptance and understanding of ideas and feelings on the part of both teacher and student, encouraging and criticizing, silence, questioning, etc. - all involve nonverbal elements. Consider the following isntances as representative of the variety of classroom nonverbal cues: (1) the frantic hand waves who is sure he has the correct answer; (2) the student who is sure he does not know the answer and tries to avoid any eye contact with the teacher; (3) the effects of student dress and hair lenght on teacher-student interaction; (4) facial expressions - threatening gestures, and tone of voice are frequently used for discipline in elementary schools; (5) the teacher who requests student questioning and criticism, but whose nonverbal actions make it clear he will not be receptive; (6) absence from class communicates; (7) a teacher's trust of his students is sometimes indicated by his arrangement of seating and his monitoring behavior during examinations; (8) the variety of techniques used by students to make sleeping appear to be studying or listening; (9) the professor who announces he has plenty of time for student conferences, but whose fidgeting and glancing at his watch suggest otherwise; (10) teachers who try to assess visual feedback to determine student comprehension; (11) even classroom design (wall colors, space between seats, windows) has an influence on student participation in the classroom. (Knapp 1972: 14-15)
For the male, it may be such things as his clothes, sideburns, lenght of hair, an arrogant grace, a thrust of his hips, touch gestures, extra long eye contact, carefully looking at the woman's figure, open gestures and movements to offset closed ones exhibited by the woman, gaining close proximity, a subtleness which will allow both parties to deny that eithed had commited themselves to a courtship ritual, making the woman feel secure, wanted, "like a woman," or showing excitement and desire in fleeting facial expressions. (Knapp 1972: 17)
...students tend to develop stronger friendships with students who share their classes, or their dormitory or apartment building, or who sit near them, than with others who are geographically distant. (Knapp 1972: 35)
If a case can be made that there are clearly defined and generally accepted physique-temperament stereotypes, we can reason that they will have a lot to do with the way you are perceived and responded to by others, and with the personality traits expected of you by others. (Knapp 1972: 72)
The self-image is the root system from which all of our overt communication behavior grows and blossoms. Our overt communication is only an extension of the accumulated experiences which have gone into making up our understanding of self. In short, what you are, or think you are, organizes what you say and do. (Knapp 1972: 74)
Common meanings of words, as found in a variety of contexts, are studied, and individual differences are compared to these common usage patterns. Similarly, movements can be studied within a range of contexts to determine their usual meaning. The importance of considering the specific context and individuals involved in the study of body movements is clear, but not all the empirical research has operated on this assumption. In the interest of experimental control, some studies eliminate context and personality completely. (Knapp 1972: 92)
Isiksus = valik sotsiaalselt konstrueeritud koode (Lotman). Kontekst = välised tingimused mis modifitseerivad nende koodide aktualiseerumist.
Tha analog of kinesics is linguistics. Just as there are subdivisions of linguistic study (descriptive and historical), there are also subdivisions of kinesic study (macrokinesics, prekinesics, and social kinesics). While there is no kinesic analog to historical linguistics, such work will be plausible in future kinesic study - using the vast number of reels of films and video tapes currently capturing man's body motion in a variety of contexts and in a variety of cultures. Microkinesics and prekinesics seem to parallel descriptive kinesics. Prekinesics deald with the physiological study of the limits of movements and the physiological determinants of movement; microkinesics deals with the derivation of units of movements. Social kinesics concerns with the study of units and patterns of movement in context in order to determine their function in communication. (Knapp 1972: 93)
...in our discussion of body movement, we must remember its specificity to this culture. The study of body movement in this country has, to this date, primarily focused on the following areas: (1) attitudes, (2) status, (3) affective states or moods, (4) approval seeking, (5) quasi-courtship behavior, (6) inclusiveness, (7) leakage or deception, (8) warmth, and (9) interaction "markers". (Knapp 1972: 97)
Visual Interaction. Kendon has hypothesized four functions of gazing: (1) cognitive: subjects tend to look away when having difficulty encoding; (2) monitoring: subjects may look at their interactant to indicate the conclusion of thought units and to check their interactant's attentiveness and reaction; (3) regulatory: responses may be demanded or suppressed by looking; and (4) expressive: degree of involvement or arousal may be signaled through looking. We can also discuss visual interaction or eye contact according to the following classification: (1) seeking feedback; (2) controlling the communication channel; (3) in the context of a specific interpersonal relationship - e.g. status, attitude, or personality differences; and (4) when distance is a factor. (Knapp 1972: 131)
Channel Control. Eye contact also occurs when we want to signal that the communication channel is open. In some instances, eye contact can almost establish an obligation to interact. When you seek eye contact with your waiter in a restaurant, you are essentially indicating the communication is open, and you want to say something to him. (Knapp 1972: 132)
Addington factor analyzed his ["The Relationship of Selected Vocal Characteristics to Personality Perception"] personality data and concluded that the male personality was generally perceived in terms of physical and emotional power, while the female personality was apparently perceived in terms of social faculties. (Knapp 1972: 153)
You should know as much as you can about the social behavior which occurs - who does what to or with whom, form of behavior, its intensity, toward whom it is directed, what initiates it, apparent objective of the behavior, effect on the other interactant(s), etc. (Knapp 1972: 184)
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