The Effects of Bacopa monnieri

FIG. 4. Camera lucida tracings of basolateral amygdaloid neurons from control rats (A) and rats treated with Bacopa monniera for 6 weeks at doses of 20 mg/kg (B), 40 mg/kg (C) and 80 mg/kg (D). (Vollala et al. in Aguiar & Borowski 2013: 320)
Caution! The author of this blog is an undergrad in humanities and has no significant acquaintance with neurology or neuropharmacology. This collection of quotes is assembled for personal use. Those interested in Bacopa monniera should acquaint themselves with the source material.

Pase, Matthew P., James Kean, Jerome Sarris, Chris Neale, Andrew B. Scholey and Con Stough 2012. The Cognitive-Enhancing Effects of Bacopa monnieri: A Systematic Review of Randomized, Controlled Human Clinical Trials. The Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine 18(7): 647-652.

Objectives: Traditional knowledge suggests that Bacopa monnieri enhances cognitive performance. Such traditional beliefs have now been scientifically tested through a handful of randomized, controlled human clinical trials. The current systematic review aimed to examine the scientific evidence as to whether Bacopa can enhance cognitive performance in humans. (Pase et al. 2012: 647)
What I've read elsewhere suggests that brahmi is a potent antioxydant and it's memory-enhancing effects can be reduced to that. I'm not sure whether it promotes dendrite growth as some unreliable or unknown sources suggest.
Across trials, three different Bacopa extracts were used at dosages of 300-450 mg extract per day. All reviewed trials examined the effects of Bacopa on memory, while other cognitive domains were less well studied. There were no cognitive tests in the areas of auditory perceptual abilities or idea production and only a paucity of research in the domains of reasoning, number facility, and language behavior. Across studies, Bacopa improved performance on 9 of 17 tests in the domain of memory free recall. There was little evidence of enhancement in any other cognitive domains. (Pase et al. 2012: 647)
Lay-users are for some reason more exact, noting the bacoside content along with dosage.
Bacopa has long been renowned for its medicinal properties. This has been documented in the sixth-century Ayurvedic text, the Caraka Samhita, whereby Bacopa is recommended for the treatment of various mental conditions. Of late, Western medicine has shown interest in this ancient herb as a potential cognitive enhancer. (Pase et al. 2012: 647)
Scriptural authority?
Sample populations were comparable both in age range and in that subjects tended to be healthy without any chronic illnesses. Although one study recruited a sample with subjective memory complaints, the sample was apparently free from cognitive impairment. (Pase et al. 2012: 648)
"My memory sucks."
Given the richness of information available, this factor was subdivided into the more specific facets of memory identified by Caroll. These domains include (1) memory span: the quantity of information one can recall in order following a single exposure to the information; (2) associative memory: the ability to recall or recognize information paired (associated) with other arbitrary information; (3) free recall memory: recall of arbitrary information when the information to be recalled exceeds the quantity of one's memory span; (4) meaningful memory: the ability to recall or recognize information when the information to be remembered has meaning; and (5) visual memory: recall or recognition of visual material that cannot be easily recoded into a nonvisual modality. (Pase et al. 2012: 649)
In this blog I apparently engage mostly in associative memory. "Meaningful memory" poses some problems - what were the criteria for considering a memory meaningful? Caroll JB. Human cognitive abilities: A survey of factor analytic studies. New York: Cambridge University Press, 1993.
The current systematic review of randomized, controlled trials revealed some evidence to suggest that Bacopa is efficacious in improving the learning and free recall of information. This suggests that Bacopa could potentially be clinically prescribed as a memory enhancer. At present, there is insufficient evidence to suggest that Bacopa improves other domains of cognitive performance in healthy nondemented subjects. (Pase et al. 2012: 651)
At least there's that. As I understand it, memory enhancement is exactly why some nootropic communities take Bacopa as a food supplement.
The focus toward testing memory over othe rcognitive domans most probably stems from Bacopa's long-standing Ayurvedic reputation as a potent "memory enhancer." Although the first randomized controlled human clinical trial to explore the long-term effects of Bacopa on cognitien reported both enhancement in memory and cognitive speed, follow-up research has not given mental speed (or other cognitive domains) the same attention as memory. (Pase et al. 2012: 651)
Thus, other cognitive domains were noted in the abstract so tautologically because there is a bias in research to ignore other domains, such as cognitive speed.
To advance current knowledge, future research in the area is required to manipulate dosage size and supplementation durations. (Pase et al. 2012: 651)
Yes! // Even some earlier research took this route.

Aguiar, Sebastian and Thomas Borowski 2013. Neuropharmacological Review of the Nootropic Herb Bacopa monnieri. Rejuvenation Research 16(4): 313-326.

Cognitive enhancement typically exacts a toxicological and psychological toll. The milieu of nootropic phytochemicals found within Bacopa monnieri (BM), primarily triperpenoid saponins called bacosides, exhibit minimal observable adverse effects at standard dosages. BM demonstrates anti-oxidant, hepatoprotective, and neuroprotective activity. Emerging research demonstrates several mechanisms of action - acetylcholinesterase inhibition, choline acetyltransferase activation, β-amyloid reduction, increased cerebral blood flow, and monoamine potentiation. (Aguiar & Borowski 2013: 313)
I have noted a psychological toll with Ginkgo Biloba. I wonder how bacopa and ginkgo would interact in terms of cerebral blood flow.
Western biomedicine is in the midst of investigating the potential value of the Eastern pharmacopeia. (Aguiar & Borowski 2013: 313)
Yup. Ginkgo is Chinese, Bacopa is Indian.
Unlike the potentially addictive and forceful action of widely used psychostimulants, chronic and moderate administration of BM appears to nourish rather than deplete neurons, an action compatible with 1400 years of Ayurvedic study. BM was initially described around the 6th century A.D. in texts such as the Charaka Samhita, Athar-Ved, and Susrutu Samhita as a medhya rasayana-class herb taken to sharpen intellect and attenuate mental deficits. The herb was allegedly used by ancient Vedic scholars to memorize lengthy sacred hymns and scriptures. (Aguiar & Borowski 2013: 313)
It feels like this turn to Eastern pharmacopeia is underlined by a need to replace depletive drugs with nourishing ones. E.g. replacing coffee with Maca.
The long-term effect of BM on humans is unknown, but animal models suggest considerable protection against age-related neurodegeneration rather than progressive toxicity or tolerance formation. (Aguiar & Borowski 2013: 314)
On forums it is known for its neuroprotective qualities. Something to do with dendrites?
The researchers found that cigarette smoke depletes zinc and selenium levels in the brain, which is especially problematic because zinc is a SOD [superoxide dismutase] co-factor and selenium is a GPx co-factor. Administration of bacoside A also restored zinc and selenium levels. (Aguiar & Borowski 2013: 314)
E.g. Bacopa may equalize some problems caused to the brain by smoking cigarettes.
Cerebral blood flow and vasodilation. Adequate perfusion of blood to capillary beds within the brain is of utmost importance. Otherwise, deficits of oxygen and nutrients will ensue alongside the buildup of cytotoxic waste. Diminished cerebral blood flow is implicated in various pathologies, including dementia. (Aguiar & Borowski 2013: 318)
"Elav organ vajab vahetuseks tarvilike aunete pidevat juurdevoolu, samuti peab toimuma lagu- ja jääkproduktide äravool. Aju varustamise ja jääkidest vabastamise häired põhjustavad paratamatult kesknärvisüsteemi tegevuse häireid, s.t. psüühhilisi häireid." (Saarma 1979: 203)
Volalla et al. studied the effect of BM on the dendritic morphology of neurons in the basolateral amygdala, a region implicated in learning and memory. Twethy-four rats were divided into 2-, 4-, and 6-week treatment groups, and then further divided into 20, 40, and 80 mg/kg per os (p.o.) dose groups and age matched to controls. All of the rats were tested in spatial learning and passive avoidance tests. They were then decapitated, and their brains were Golgi stained and evaluated for dendritic branching (arborization) and intersections (length). The results indicated an improvement in spatial learning and memory retention and a significant increase in dendritic length and branching points within the basolateral amygdala at the doses 40 and 80 mg/kg at the 4- and 6-week intervals (Fig. 4 [post heading picture]). (Aguiar & Borowski 2013: 319)
Hopefully there are other means for studying dendritic morphology of neurons in humans other than decapitation. It should be noted that the dendritic aspect has only been studied on rats, not humans. Although it would explain why it was used for learning lengthy hymns and scriptures. Mo' dendritic branching mo' neuroprotection, yo!
Pace et al. supports previous findings that BM most effectively reduces the rate of forgetting, but not acquisition or other aspects of cognition (though this matter is by no means settled). (Aguiar & Borowski 2013: 321)
This would suggest that Bacopa monnieri is not "magical" and will not give you elephant memory. Rather, it would be most effective if taken alongside active memorizing.
These findings evidence the potency of BM, particularly in measures of verbal recall. Remarkably, contemporary findings appear to support the alleged use of BM in Vedic antiquity by scholars memorizing lengthy hymns. (Aguiar & Borowski 2013: 321)
It's quite nice when folkloric knowledge of herbs actually stands up to verification.
The researchers found no significant acute cognitive effects in the BM group. The absence of noticeable acute effects may diminish the likelihood of dependency-forming or -reinforcing behavior. (Aguiar & Borowski 2013: 321)
It is common knowledge that the nootropic effects of Bacopa are longitudinal, e.g. that it takes at least 8 weeks for a noticeable improvement in memory. While other studies bemuse the lack of acute effects, here it seems like positive quality.
BM demonstrates immense potential in the amelioration of cognitive disorders, as well as prophylactic reduction of oxidative damage, NT modulation, and cognitive enhancement in healthy people. Biomedical research on BM is still in its infancy, but preliminary results such as these have begun to open the research floodgates. It is critical that much longer-term studies be conducted BM in combination with other substances, as is prescribed by the Ayurvedic system, may result in synergistic effects and should also be investigated. The social implications of cognition-enhancing drugs are promising but must be appropriately tempered with ethical considerations as researchers enter the brave new world of neural enhancement. (Aguiar & Borowski 2013: 322)
The neural enhancement community already acknowledges that it is better to take up a wider variety of nootropics than to take higher doses of a single nootropic. I even found two studies of Bacopa in combination with Ginkgo!

Nathan, P. J., J. Clarke, J. Lloyd, C. W. Hutschison, L. Downey and C. Stough 2001. The acute effects of an extract of Bacopa monniera (Brahmi) on cognitive function in healthy normal subjects. Human Psychopharmacology: Clinical and Experimental 16(4): 345-351.

Ginkgo biloba and Bacopa monniera are two herbal extracts sharing similarities in their mechanism of action (Nathan, 2000; Nathan et al., 2001b) and demonstrating cognitive endancing effects in humans. Recently we have shown that chronic administration of these extracts in healthy human subjects can improve neuropsychological functioning, particularly learning and memory, executive processing and information processing (Stough et al., 2001a; 2001b). (Nathan et al. 2001: 163)
I think this mechanism of action may have something to do with cerebral blood flow.
A recent study by Wesnes et al. (2000) showed that combined administration of two herbal extracts has positive effects on cognitive functions. In this study administration of Ginko biloba and Panax Gingseng improved working and long-term memory. This study suggests that administration of two extracts in combination may have a better efficacy im improving cognitive function in normal healthy subjects. (Nathan et al. 2001: 163)
I'll have to look into Panax Ginseng as well. Although I've been long aware of it and even drank some gingseng tea a while ago, it appears that it is sold in capsules at a nearby heart-specialized pharmacy.
The current findings suggest that acute administration of standard doses of Ginko biloba and Bacopa monniera has no acute effects on cognitive function in normal subjects. (Nathan et al. 2001: 164)
Why again do the effects have to be acute? It's pretty clear that chronic administration is the way to go.

Nathan, Pradeep J., Sally Tanner, Jenny Lloyd, Ben Harrison, Leah Curran, Chris Oliver and Con Stough 2004. Effects of a combined extract of Ginko biloba and Bacopa monniera on cognitive function in healthy humans. Human Psychopharmacology: Clinical and Experimental 19: 91-96.

The cognitive effects of Bacopa monniera have not been examined extensively. It has been shown that acute (300 mg) administration of an extract of Bacopa monniera had no effects on cognitive function (Nathan et al., 2001), while chronic administration (3 months) led to significant improvements in information processing, learning and memory consolidation in normal healthy subjects (Stough et al., 2001b). (Nathan et al. 2004: 91)
The abstract states that this study investigates sub-chronic (2 weeks) and chronic (4 weeks) effects, but results demonstrate no significant effects on testing cognitive processes. Thus, it appears that even 1 month is not enough for noticeable enhancement. The nootropic community advises at least 8 weeks for first noticeable effects. It is clear that Bacopa is meant for the long run.
It is possible that differences in the dose of Ginko biloba in the extract and duration of treatment may in part explain the lack of efficacy of the combined extract. Firstly, the total dose of Ginkgo biloba used in this extract was 120 mg (2 x 60mg) in comparison with doses ranging over 120-600 mg in the studies that have demonstrated positive effects. (Nathan et al. 2004: 95)
It would appear that I am playing it safe by taking 2 x 60 mg Ginkgo giloba daily.
A likely reason for the lack of effect of the combined extract on cognitive function may be related to the sensitivity of the tests to neurochemical manipulation. We have suggested previously that while certain tests are validated clinical measures of neuropsychological function, they may not be sensitive to pharmacological manipulation, especially to herbal componds (Nathan et al., 2003). (Nathan et al. 2004: 95)
Yeah, no, these herbs don't make you a "superwoman" (or a "superman"). My experience with chronic administration of Ginkgo bilob says that it merely reduces mental fatigue and enhances cognition so that I am able to stay awake in extremely boring lectures and can read lengthy and complicated texts without fatigue.

Rosso, A. and F. Borrelli 2005. Bacopa monniera, a reputed nootropic plant: an overview. Phytomedicine 12(4): 305-317.

Preliminary studies established that the treatment with the plant (Malhotra and Das, 1959) and with the alcoholic extract of BM plant (Singh and Dhawan, 1982) enhanced learning ability in rats. Subsequent studies indicated that the cognition-facilitating effect was due to two active saponins, bacosides A and B, present in the ethanol extract (Singh and Dhawan, 1992). These active principles, apart from facilitating learning and memory in normal rats, inhibited the amnesic effects of scopolamine, electroshock and immobilization stress (Dhawan and Singh, 1996). The mechanism of these pharmacological actions remains conjectural. It has been suggested that the bacosides induce membrane dephosphorylation, with a concomitant increase in protein and RNA turnover in specific brain areas (Singh et al., 1990). Further, BM has been shown to enhance protein kinase activity in the hippocampus which could also contribute to its nootropic action (Singh and Dhawan, 1997). (Rosso & Borrelli 2005: 307)
"[The hippocampus] belongs to the limbic system and plays important roles in the consolidation of information from short-term memory to long-term memory and spatial navigation." (Wiki) Although this is wildly conjectural, the connection with protein kinase activity (changing the function of the protein) in the hippocampus would thus explain not only it's memory enhancing effects but also the anecdotal evidence of Bacopa making you acutely aware of your body language, especially your posture.
The central cholinergic system is considered the most important neurotransmitter involved in the regulation of cognitive functions. Cholinergic neuronal loss in hippocampal area is the major feature of Alzheimer's disease (AD) and enhancement of central cholinergic activity by anticholinestrase is presently the mainstay of the pharmacotherapy of AD-type senile dementia. (Rosso & Borrelli 2005: 307)
Note: eggs! Eggs with Bacopa.
All the extracts showed a dose-dependent inhibitory effect on acetylcholinesterase/AchE activity in vitro, but none of BM extracts showed more than 50% inhibition, suggesting that the extracts of GB and BM have potent cognitive enhancing properties, but with different mechanisms of action. (Rosso & Borrelli 2005: 308)
Thus, Ginkgo and Bacopa may have different mechanisms of action, as opposed to earlier remarks on their similarity.
Recently, Stough et al. (2001) undertook a study, using a double-blind placebo-controlled design and a battery of well-validated neuropsychological tests, to examine the chronic effects of an extract of BM on cognitive function in healthy human subjects. The authors showed that BM (300 mg) given chronically for 12 weeks improved early information processing, verbal learning and memory consolidation in humans. This is consistent with the study of Sharma et al. (1987), who also observed positive effects on learning and memory following 12 weeks administration. However, as reported for GB extract (Nathan et al., 2002), no acute effects on cognitive function were found at a lower dose (300 mg) (Nathan et al., 2001), even when BM extract was combined with GB extract (Maher et al., 2002). Therefore, as suggested by the authors, it is possible that the combined administration of both these extracts chronically may exert more potent effects on cognitive function. (Rosso & Borrelli 2005: 314)
Higher doses and chronic administration seems to be the keys here.

Rout, Susanta Kumar and Durga Madhab Kar 2010. A review on antiepileptic agents, current research and future prospectus on conventional and traditional drugs. International Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences Review and Research 3(2): Article 004.

Around 75-80% of epileptic patients may be provided with adequate seizure control with the help of conventional antiepileptic drugs. Carbamazepine, ethosuximide, phenobarbital, phenytoin, and valproate are the most frequently used conventional antiepileptics. The therapeutic failure in 20-25% of patients has stimulated intensive research on novel antiepileptic drugs and so far most of them have been developed and licensed mainly as add-on treatment in patients poorly responding to conventional therapy. These are ferbamate, gabapenin, lamotrigine, levetiracetam, oxcarbazepine, tiagabine, topiramate, vigabatrin, and zonisamide. This period has brought many new antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) to the practicing physician. (Rout & Kar 2010: 19)
Thus it would appear that oxcarbazepine is variant B, for when conventional antiepileptic drugs fail. Reading up on the side effects and especially the possible reproductive risks on Wikipedia, it seems understandable why this compound is not a first choice.
Antiepileptic drugs are well-known for their drug interactions; not only between each other, but also with other pharmacologic agents. These observations have led to a shift in focus to the use of herbal remedies in the management of epileptic seizures. (Rout & Kar 2010: 19)
#EasternMedicineAndNewAgeBullcrap (e.g. Cherokee Hair Tampons)
Traditional medicinal practices have remained as a component of health care system of many societies in spite of the availability of well-established alternatives. Plants have been used by mankind for their relieving and therapeutic abilities and still we rely on their healing properties. Plants having active constituent have a direct pharmacological action on our body including various organs like brain. The Indian system of medicine "Ayurveda" clossified the plants affecting the brain and other major organs. (Rout & Kar 2010: 20)
Bacopa monniera belongs to this class. Also, it is a happy coincidence that aju means "brain" in Estonian. Ajurveeda...
Lamotrigine (LAMICTAL) acts by inhibiting the release of excitatory amino acids such as glutamate through the modilation of sodium and calcium channels. (Rout & Kar 2010: 20)
"BM (Bacopa monniera) appears to act as a vasodilator by releasing NO (nitric oxide) from the endothelium and inhibiting calcium fluctuations in and out of the sarcoplasmic reticulum. More research on this property of BM is warranted." (Aguiar & Borowski 2013: 318) I would bet that those darn calcium channels have something to do with BM's antiepileptic properties.
Oxcarbazepine (TRILEPTAL) and its active metabolite (10 monohydroxy epoxide derivative) block voltage dependent sodium and voltage-activated calcium channels. Oxcarbazepine is similar to carbamazepine in its spectrum of anti-convulsant activity. It is currently recommended as either a first line monotherapy or an add-on therapy for partial seizures with or without secondary generalization with the major side effects of hyponatremia and hypersensitivity reaction. (Rout & Kar 2010: 20)
So the general mechanism (blocking or inhibiting calcium channels) may be the same. Hyponatremia is a condition that occurs when the level of sodium in your blood is abnormally low. Both hyponatremia and hypersensitivity reaction have been noted on Wikipedia in simple English: "A craving for salty foods (such as potato chips) and increased impulsiveness have also been noted."
Seizure activity leads to neuronal cell loss and, as it has been already mentioned, neurodegeneration may affect the protective activity of some antiepileptic drugs. (Rout & Kar 2010: 21)
This would explain "lost memories" of an epileptic person.

Mathew, Jobin, Jes Paul, M.S. Nandhu and C.S. Paulose 2010. Bacopa monnieri and Bacoside-A for ameliorating epilepsy associated behavioral deficits. Fitoterapia 81(5): 315-322.

Bacopa monnieri is an outstanding nervine tonic used for raising the mental performance. It helps in concentration, comprehension, recall and alertness, Brahmi is particularly beneficial as it ads in categorizing information in brain and its subsequent expression. Bacopa is also called as a natural antioxydant which may give details its neuroprotective role siin in the memory centers of the brain. Epilepsy is neuronal disorder characterized by learning, cognitive and memory impairments. The present review summarizes information concerning botany, chemistry and beneficial effect of Bacopa monnieri on epilepsy associated behavioral deficits. (Mathew et al. 2010: 315)
This characterization seems tendentious. Previous readings have suggested that although it may enhange concentration and memory (e.g. recall), it's effects on comprehension and alertness are unsubstantiated.
It is used in traditional Indian medicine, the Ayurveda, for the treatment of anxiety, and in improving intellect and memory for several centuries. In addition to memary boosting activity, it is also claimed to be useful in the treatment of cardiac, respiratory and neuropharmacological disorders like insomnia, insanity, depression, psychosis, epilepsy and stress. It was reported to possess anti-inflammatory, analgesic, antipyretic, sedative, free radical scavenging and anti-lipid peroxidative activities. The plant is reported to have shown barbiturate hypnosis potentiation effect. The plant is anticancerous and improves learning ability. It is used as a tranquilliser. The plant is astringent, bitter, sweet, cooling, laxative, intellect promoting, anodyne, carminative, digestive, antiinflammatory, anticonvulsant, depurative, cardiotonic, bronchodialator, diuretic, emmenagogue, sudorfic, febrifuce and tonic. (Mathew et al. 2010: 316)
This is where the "sedative" effect factors in. Some users of Bacopa report that it gets increasingly difficult to get out of the bed in the morning, which is - along with diarrhea and stomach cramps - one of the prime reasons for cutting back the dosage.
In a subsequent study the same author investigated the constituents responsible for Bacopa's effect and demonstrated that the isolated bacosides A and B were effective in enhancing memory in rats in learning tasks involving both positive and negative reinforcement. Additionally, this study demonstrated that the bacosides produced changes in the hippocampus, cerebral cortex (areas critical to memory function) and hypothalamus regions of the brain and caused enhanced levels of protein kinase activity and increases in protein levels in these regions. This indicated positive implications for improved neurotransmission and repair of damaged neurons via enhanced regeneration of nerve synapses. (Mathew et al. 2010: 317)
The bit about protein kinase activity was already noted (above) - "increases in protein levels in these regions" pretty much captures it. Improved neurotransmission is also almost a given, but the part about "enhanced regeneration of nerve synapses" needs elucidation. Is that why Destiny's Equation used Bacopa - because of her brain damage? It would certainly make sense that dendritic growth would regenerate some nervous connection, but it would be neat to know more about the mechanism of action.
The bacosides aid in repair of damaged neurons by enhancing kinase activity, neuronal synthesis, and restoration of synaptic activity, and ultimately nerve impulse transmission. (Mathew et al. 2010: 317)
Oh. Dat kinase activity.
Stress elicits a defensive response in living organisms. The defense response involves several mechanisms including stress gene expression, enhanced antioxidant protection, and enhanced toxin clearance. Bacopa has been shown to facilitate each of these adaptive resources by modulation of Hsp 70 expression, and enhancement of activity of both superoxide dismutase and cytochrome P450 enzymes in stressor exposed rat brains. Thus, Bacopa may facilitate the capacity of the brain to withstand stress, and help the brain to function under adverse conditions. These findings support the afore-mentioned medhya rasayana classification of Bacopa in ancient Ayurveda in that they imply a brain tonic and adaptogenic effect (adaptogenic meaning improved resistance to stress). (Mathew et al. 2010: 317)
Neat. "Hate or dislike of any kind did not compute, I could only love."
Bacopa significantly improved the ability to retain information over time as measured by a task requiring delayed recognition all of word pairs. The authors commented that this may be due to less information being lost from memory, that is, the results are due to decreased forgetting, as opposed to enhanced acquisition because learning trials did not show any effect of Bacopa. Outcome measures in this study which failed to show a significant effect for Bacopa were tasks of short term memory, working memory, attention, retrieval of prior knowledge and psychological state (anxiety, stress and depression). (Mathew et al. 2010: 318)
This was already noted above: Bacopa should go hand in hand with actual and active learning and memorizing. It alleviates amnesia rather than improves memory as such.
Because of the side effects of chemical drugs, drugs of plant origin are gaining importance and are being investigated for remedies of a number of disorders. Since the introduction of adaptogen concept, several plants have been investigated, which were used earlier as tonics due to their adaptogenic and rejuvenating properties in traditional medicine. B. monnieri has been reported to possess anxiolytic, antidepressant and memory enhancing activity. (Mathew et al. 2010: 319)
An adaptogen is apparently a chemical compound that stabilizes physiological processes and promotes homeostasis. It is "medicine for the healthy".
The mechanism of action behind the memory and cognition enhancing effects of B. monnieri is still uncertain, as its multiple active constituents have multifunctional properties, making its pharmacology complex. But the antioxidant properties of B. monnieri have been well documented. (Mathew et al. 2010: 319)
If nothing else, it's a potent antioxidant.
Previous studies showed decreased Rotarod performance demonstrated the impairment in the motor function and coordination in the epileptic rats, suggesting impairment in their ability to integrate sensory input with appropriate motor commands to balance their posture and at the same time adjust their limb movements on the metallic rod and is indicative of cerebellar dysfunction. Treatment using B. monnieri and its active component bacoside-A improving cerebellar function. (Mathew et al. 2010: 319-320)
This is the part that interests me most. There are so many calls to study this or that aspect of Bacopa's effect, but one that hasn't been mentioned anywhere is the connection with motor cortex. I think this warrants investigation.


janer123 said...

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