New Tartu Semiotics

Torop, Peeter 2000a. New Tartu Semiotics. European Journal for Semiotic Studies 12(1): 5-221``.

The restoration of Estonia's independence coincided with the 25th jubilee of the Tartu-Moscow school. In the foreword to an overview of the contents of publications of the Department of Russian Literature, Lotman expressed his hope that
the scientific possibilities of the Tartu-Moscow semiotic school have not been exhausted yet, and it is still capable of creating ideas that would be unexpected both for the opponents of this trend, and to the supporters themselves (Lotman 1991: 92).
However, the institutionalization of semiotics at Tartu University was painful. The Department of Russian Literature split into two, and this border brought along tensions and new searches for identity. The founding meeting of the Department of Semiotics took place in 1992 at Lotman's home, and besides Lotman himself Irina Avramec, Igor Ĉernov, Michail Lotman, and Peeter Torop participated. In the same year a three-valume collection of Lotman's works appeared in Estonia in Russian, together with a bibliography of his works (Lotman 1992(. Lotman's old dream of a center for semiotics that would provide also reliable education in cultural history was about to come true. (Torop 2000a: 7-8)
Some notes on the history of our department.
I also have to say some words about myself. Lotman gave me a position in the Department of Russian Literature just after my graduation from Tartu University in 1974. Following the request of editors I had to write jubilee articles on him, and also his obituary. I have made many interviews with Lotman, both for articles and also ,due to appeals of some journals, for individual publishing. The last recorder conversation took place in September 1992, a little more than a year before his death, in expectance of death and in hope of a better future for the Department of Semiotics. Maybe fragments of this dialogue will point at dialogue between times in concrete time, and help to understand new semiotics in Tartu. Fragments of this conversation have appeared earlier in a special volume of the Estonian journal Keel ja Kirjandus (10/1994) that was dedicated to Lotman, and in Spanish in the journal Discurso (8/1993). (Torop 2000a: 8-9)
More history, and a reference to K&K that should be checked out.
When I started with the investigation of Fëdor Dostoevskij's work in 1980, Lotman's wife and my unforgettable teacher Zara Minc warned me of great authors. She said that for treating a famous and much inspected writer there has te be found a very special innovative aspect of research to avoid falling into provincialism. I feared this provincialism also in semiotics, because for example an examination of Charles S. Peirce in Tartu, where his texts did not exist in English until lately, would very much smell of provincialism. I was very much hoping that in semiotics Tartu will not become a periphery university only itroducing Western tradition. But this will not happen, if the sin in Lorenz's sense is not committed - that is, if our tradition will not be given up. (Torop 2000a: 9)
Nowadays this fear is injustifiable. The internet evens the playing field. Anyone with the basic know-how of performing a google search can find a PDF of C. S. Peirce's Collected Papers. We should not abstain from semeiotics only because it became available here only recently. Rather, we should use these "other" semiotics to complement out own, to construct a new Tartu semiotics from any given source but in the spirit of our tradition - the stereotypical saying applies here: "think globally, act locally" (or: read general/global semiotics, write particular/local semiotics).
The young break through and go on, and it has to be accepted that a lot of what they tell you is not comprehensible anymore, that you yourself are not on that level anymore. It is sad, but you know, life is a sad thing in general. Still, in this sadness there is a kind of specific attraction. (Torop 2000a: 11)
Very true words from J. Lotman.

Randviir, Anti 2000. Semiotization: What, Where, How? (The Case of the City). European Journal for Semiotic Studies 12(1): 47-69.

As a sub-discipline of semiotics, "semiotics of the city" serves as an example for the evident assumption that phenomena of the human environment (e.g. the city) can be treated as meaningful entities. The creation of semiotic entities, in turn, confronts us with topics such as: to whom thoy are signs or semiotic entities, under which circumstances, and how they have been semioticized. Furthermore, the status of the city as a semiotic entity is dependent on whether the city as such is semioticized and articulated in different, e.g. artistical, semiotic systems, or the city itself is used for the semiotization of miscellanoeus cultural phenomena. If the latter use of the city can already be treated as societal description of semiotization of several cultural phenomena, then in the case of semiotic analysis of the city the social nature of meaningful objects demands taking such material under inspection that can provide us with information on "primary semiotization" of the city on the basis of descriptions (manifestations of "secondary semiotization") of those processes. Probably representations of semiotic phenomena, ranging in the case of the city from individual oral territorial discourse to depiction of the city in maps, can grant us with such material and protect semiotic analysis from falling into subjective discoursing on a metalevel. (Randviir 2000: 47)
Similar problems confront us in terms of nonverbal communication: the semiotics of behaviour itself and the semiotics of representations, descriptions, depictions etc. of behaviour on the other.
Of course, in order to view an object as placeable under semiotics it is necessary to consider the probability of meaningfulness, but for the task of describing it as such one has to reserve the possibility of controlling what is to be ascribed to a given object on the semiotic metalevel. Therefore, it is indispensable for the semiotic metalevel to find a third level against the background of which a given object is to be described. Semiotic analysis of the city is to approach its object(s), presuming it is semiosic, and to describe it via the third level, on which the city has already been (consciously) semioticized. The formation of the city as an object of semiotics proceeds through semiotic description (i.e. semiotization) of the city semioticized on the third level of social or individual discourse. This provides semiotic description with interpretation of the creation and usage of meaningful units as created and used by the very individual or group who is using or creating them. However simplified this standpoint may seem, it is crucial and an unavoidable prerequisite for a semiotic analysis as the one to describe meaningful entities and semiotic systems the functioning of which is inevitably and essentially social. (Randviir 2000: 49)
This presumption of semioticity is an "intellectual licence" which I have, for personal convenience, labelled with the term semiophrenia.
The dynamics of textual semantics and methods of semiotization activating different semantic perspectives seem to be inherently dependent on subjective factors both on the side of the creator of the text and of its interpreter. Yet the intersubjective regularities and semiosic habits settled in cultural tradition make successful textual communication possible. Therefore we have reason to maintain that, principally, individual habits of signification and interpretation are unified in textual communication (and representative discourse), and that these habits are describable through textual structures. This provides also metaphorical usage of the text, often with high heuristic value. (Randviir 2000: 55)
In nonverbalism, these factors can be grouped into pansubjective (awkward term), intersubjective and subjective proper (e.g. biological, socio-cultural and personal).
At the same time, be it fictitious imagination or a real feature of a city, this complex-sign may switch into the composition of the mechantism that regulates the structure and behavior of the city's community. Due to this it may even start to influence the physical form of the city space (e.g. what and how to build). This interactive relation between immaterial and physical environment, or the real and the semiotically real world, shapes the developmental code system of the city's semiotic structure that can be called the modeling language of the given city. This "language" is the one allowing to appeal to certain (artistic) texts, behavioral codes, etc.: for instance, "Parisian", "New-Yorkian", "Petersburgian", referring to the circumstance that some "texts" are, for some reason or another, especially characteristic to a given city. In the same way the whole cultural tradition of a city can be called upon, e.g. "The Petersburg Text" (see Toporov 1995). (Randviir 2000: 56)
The semiotics of the city also pertains to the semiotics of behaviour.
Just as patterns of social behavior may be influenced on a generalizing level (e.g. Petersburgian "artistic behavior" in certain historical periods), sa may there exist districts in the city that induce or are associated with different behavioral patterns (e.g. gangs in slums). (Randviir 2000: 61)
While reading this article my father informed me of the legalized immigration of gypsy refugees in our hometown and the growing rate of theft. His own tractor has once been liberated of it's metal tracks right from our yard by representatives of the gypsy community, so he is naturally inclined to suspicion. Now, in his mind, there's a whole city district where absolutely nothing can be left unlocked (luckily it's on the other side of the town from our home). Still, what once used to be a district for harmless pensioners is now a dangerous neighhood. Patterns change. If I'm already spewing personal stuff, I may just as well record an occurrence which baffled me. I was bicycling to town in Tartu and right before the pedestrian bridge stopped to light a cigarette. A 40s-something gypsy woman with kids asked me for a cigarette. As I don't usually hand out cigarettes to strangers (I'm not a dispenser) I refused. Without skipping a beat the woman began searching for words to insult me but the best she could come up with was "redhead!" I'm still baffled. Not only am I not a redhead (I have a ginger beard but my hair are brown) but I cannot imagine in what sense is this insulting. Even if it were true, stating the obvious amounts to nothing in my mind. There are palpable intercultural differences at play.

Torop, Peeter 2000b. Intersemiosis and Intersemiotic Translation. European Journal for Semiotic Studies 12(1): 71-100.

Proceeding from the notion of unlimited semiosis, U. Eco expresses the processuality of semiosis auto-communicatively: "Semiosis explains itself by itself; this continual circularity is the normal condition of signification" (Eco 1977: 71). Quite in the order of things U. Eco uses also the notion of semiosic encyclopedia juxtaposing encyclopedia and dictionary in his conception. J. Lotman's notion of semiosphere includes "the whole semiotic space of culture" (Lotman 1990: 125) characterized by heterogeneity:
The languages which fill up the semiotic space are various, and they relate to each other along the spectrum which runs from complete mutual translatability to just as complete mutual untranslatability. Heterogeneity is defined both by the diversity of elements and by their different functions (Lotman 1990: 125).
Such an approach inevitably leads to the individuating of other semiospheres within the semiosphere. As a result the border of the semiospheres of culture comes into view and within it the complex totality of semiospheres with interweaving borders (see Torop 1998). (Torop 2000b: 74)
Semiosis is here, via auto-communication, ascribed with almost cosmological meaning: signs interpret themselves as if sign-users were mere necessity, something one needs not to bother with when theorizing semiosis. This seems like a slippery thing to happen when textual semiotics is at play. But even more far-reaching stuff is up ahead:
Drafts are never destroyed. Ready things do not exist in poetry, plastic art and art in general [...] Thus, the preservation of drafts is the law of conversation of text energetics. To reach the aim one should accept and take into account the wind blowing in somewhat different direction (Mandel'štam 1967: 27-28).
(Torop 2000b: 75)
This originates from Slovo i kultura. Sellest omakorda pärineb vististi "luule jäävuse seadus." The statements are too categorical, though. Drafts are constantly destroyed; they are drafts, that's what they're made for - improving the draft until it is finished and can be rewritten. Even more, today drafts are seldom made. Word-processing has made draft-writing superfluous: one can correct the mistakes in the file without having to make a new file. To preserve files, on the other hand, demands some effort. I have developed a habit out of saving every text I write as a dated text file in a designated folder marked by years. I've been doing this for 6 and a half years by now. For sake of statistics, the folder contains a sum total of 2,561 text files. #sahtel
The opposition of picture and word is not especially productive since they are complementary phnomena for the psychology of thinking. So inscriptions (titles) of pictures and statues can be seen as the most elementary examples of the binarity of creative thinking (Žinkin 1964: 38). (Torop 2000b: 81-82)
And yet it is productive. Perhaps not especially, but the image-text relationship is still "unsolved" and perhaps even "unsolvable." One may at least have a go at it and arrive at new perspectives.
To speak of an authorial agent or work conception more seriously it is necessary to specify the interrelations of plot and story and the beginning and the end: any story concerns events and human movements (or states) in space and time, or more exactly in chronotope, because these notions are complementary. First we can specify the topographical chronotope that fixes the succession of events and the real world, more or less recognizable for the spectator. The reader comes into contact with real time and space. The man (the actor) whose language, behavior and costume reflect his subjective attitude to time and space is moving in this chronotope. A man (an actor) is the center of the psychological chronotope which conveys the character aspect to the spectator: self-evaluation and evaluation of other people and events. Authors have produced a film proceeding from certain aims or conceptions. Their main aim was to create a whole, to communicate the conception to the spectator in a clear and general form. This is probably by means of the metaphysical chronotope, i.e. the conceptual chronotope, the authorial interpretation of chronotope. An aspect of eternity usually exists in film thanks to the metaphysical chronotope. (Torop 2000b: 84)
These notions can actually be used (in a combining manner) for concursive purposes without any unnecessary new terms. For example: "Tom frowned [topographical] his displeasure [psychological]."
Although literature is mostly the field of literary studies and cinema the field of cinema studies, the two branches have points of contact. Literary scholars use the notion of montage and simultaneity, and cinema scholars the notions of plot and story. But this doesn't mean that film should be described in the metalanguage of literary studies, and literary work in the metalanguage of cinema studies, although it would be possible. The heterogeneity of the film structure does not create obstacles since film is a whole and the generation of its integrality is the generation of style. More exactly it's the heterogeneity of materials used in film and not the heterogeneity of filmm as a work of art. (Torop 2000b: 85-86)
In a similar manner literary studies and nonverbal communication studies have their points of contact in concursive studies.
Transmutation is defined as interpretation of verbal signs by means of nonverbal sign systems. (Torop 2000b: 87)
Concursivity is exactly the opposite: interpretation of nonverbal sign systems by means of verbal signs.
The intersemiotic dimension of culture follows from the partial concurrence of signs of languages (sign systems) of different arts: first, at the level of separate existence of these languages and texts in these languages (for example, the case of theatre and cinema); second, at the level of mental interference, or the existence of a separate text simultaneously in the form of tekts of different types (novel, film, performance, picture, etc.); third, at the level of text projection on the presuppositional textual or intertextual background... (Torop 2000b: 96)
Indeed, there is a concurrence of the same piece in different media.

Kull, Kalevi 2000. Copy versus Translate, Meme versus Sign: Development of Biological Textuality. European Journal for Semiotic Studies 12(1): 101-120š.

In addition to this, it is important to admit the role of the environment. For instance, a pattern of behavior of organisms can vary as dependent on the environment in which these organisms live, which means that particular behavioral forms are connected (or limited) to a particular environment. Thus, for instance, what can be inherited via BIS [behavioral inheritance systems] may be only the behavior used in limited conditions, in the case if this enviromnet remains in its limits. Therefore, the stability of the environmental conditions is a necessary part of the inheritance systems, being itself a carrier of a part of information from generation to generation. (Kull 2000: 104)
Inheritance of behaviour. I don't believe I have much information on this yet, at least not in the biological sense. Habits and behavior patterns, of course, but no talk of inheritance that I can think of.
What makes chemical processes in a living body different from any other chemical processes, is that practically all chemical processes in organisms are - as a real surprise for a semiotician - triadic. Substances A and B cannot react with each other and make a product without some C - the third - which is usually an enzyme. (Kull 2000: 110)
The title of the paragraph is "Catalytic ↔ Autopoietic", which is an indicator of the type of discourse (autopoiesis) that should be perused to find out more.
According to Th.A. Sebeok, the key to semiosis is the microcosm in symbiosis. This is a quintessentially semiotic concept". This is because symbiosis presupposes communication. Also, J. Deely (1990: 25) has remarked, that the rise of semiotic interpretation of biology is very much consistent with the understanding that symbiosis is a crucial process determining the evolution of organisms, as it has been described by L. Margulis, and others.
J.v. Uexküll (1931: 391) says: "Wohim wir schauen, erblicken wir [...] komplementäre Einpassungen paarweise aufenander abgestimmter Umwelten". This emphasis on the reciproccity of interactions in living systems is an important aspect for understanding Uexküll's views. This concerns, for instance, his approach to the role of symbiosis: "man kann sagen daß grundsätzlich alle Lebewesen zugleich selbstdienlich und fremddienlich sind" (Uexküll 1973: 322). (Kull 2000: 112)
Similarly, (human) sociality presupposes communicatian. From now on I'll do my best to include german passages in my quotes whenever they show up. It is possible that these will be the material on which I will learn the language. It'd be a good idea to start carrying german quotes around on pieces of paper to repeat from time to time. Ergo, the tag #deutsch
The sign itself, a single sign, does not live, neither a single text. However, they are always connected to, or components of, a living system. Culture, though, is a living system. Culture, according to Lotman (1990), is also a text, but never consisting of single language; culture, as well an any living system, is a complex of texts. In a way, culture and organism are analogues (cf. Lotman 1984). This is important to consider when we try to apply semiotic analysis to biological systems. (Kull 2000: 115)

Levčenko, Jan 2000. The Movable Author: On Several Units of Structure in V. Šklovskij's Sentimental Journey. European Journal for Semiotic Studies 12(1): 181-192.

At first, Šklovskij personally is the author of a continual text of his life. His behavior was a good example of theatrical semiotics, and a term like Homo Ludents, by Johan Huizinga, wouldn't be an exaggeration. Ferther, Šklovskij is the basic hero of his essay written in the manner of "a mask which points to itself" (Barthes 1964: 107). Speaking otherwise, Šklovskij uses an auctorial type of narration which actializes an rchaic form of novel, where the consciousness of the narrator is individualized and limited (for example, in confession, travel notes, collection of letters, and so on). But the only difference is in the adoption of this narrative style on the background of the stagnant model of the 19th century nover with its "right" principles. That's why the more exact nomination of this process would be "archaizing innovation", using the term as defined in Toporov 1979. (Levčenko 2000: 185)
This is the type of discourse that I hate and admire simultaneously. On the one hand it is built on well-known or characteristic quotes which are interesting in and of themselves. On the other hand, because these are presumed to be well-known, they remain vague for the novice. I'd very much like to know what "a mask which points to itself" could be (a metaphor for?) but this quote does little to make it clear [...] and after google-searching the phrase I can say the same of every other instance when it is used.
The next problem is how the author of a "journey" appeals to the means of moving. Are they significant for the character of the text or not? In the case of Šklovskij the answer is surely "yes". A machine is a gear of the plot, it seems to be a new person, which transmits high-speed changes of textual events. The most important topics are: 1) the direction of action and its meaning; 2) the type of vehicle and its pragmasemantics. (Levčenko 2000: 186)
Similarly, for Bakhtin, tresholds like doors and gates were devices of plot-advancement. How the machine is a gear of the plot is very marked in some novels. For example, in Olev Remsu's Kurbmäng Paabelis, the lift that takes the main character from one floor to the other has significant impact of the plot because every floor is different and - for the reader - unexpected. It throws the character into new activities. Walking or locomotion is equally significant in literature, as it seemingly occurs very often that when the character is moving, he is forced to describe the environment and the people who inhabit it. Moving around it a very literal advancement of the plot - it is how the character advances from one room or space to the next.

Avramec, Irina 2000. Mythological Motifs in F. M. Dostoevskij's Story The Landlady. European Journal for Semiotic Studies 12(1): 193-204.

The story is full of descriptions of the characters' actions, sensations and thoughts in so-called "borderline conditions" (or in states of altered consciousness) - sleep, delirium, hallucinations, intoxications, fits of epilepsy (Bem 1938: 47-89; Nazirov 1970: 115-120; Klejman 1984: 65-69). (Avramec 2000: 194)
Indeed it is (as the following quotes reveal). The notion of concursivity, though, enables me to make these meta-descriptions shorter. "The story is very concursive" is what I would say.
Katerina herself repeatedly refers to the connection between her subordination to Murin and his "verbal talent": "I'm his; I've sold him my soul... He has tortured me, read his books te me. [...] He keeps reading such menacing and gloomy things to me!" (193). "He's powerful" His word is great!" (294). While reporting to Ordynow Murin's speech to her, she concludes, "[a]nd that very minute all my flesh smiled at his words." (299). (Avramec 2000: 195)
I believe this is something psycholinguistics or paralinguistics should study: the as-if "magical" effects of speech. On the one extreme there is the "language band" effect - when someone tells you something you feel the compulsion to stay put and cannot leave his or her presence until he or she has finished rambling. On the other extreme is the "speech with gravity" (for a lack of better term) - when someone is talking about something that may not even be that interesting but does it in a manner that compells and entices, hypnotizes, even arouses and turns on (makes one's flesh smile).
He saw [...] how the old man's eyes twinkled maliciously, [...] and all his face was suddenly distorted by rage. He saw how the old man's [...] wandering hand searched for the gun hanging on the wall; then he saw how the muzzle of the gun flashed, being directed straight into his chest by the uncertain hand, trembling with fury (281).
[D]espair, fury and inexhaustible malice seized [...] Ordynow's spirit. Not realizing what he was doing, nearly out of his mind, he leant his hand against the wall and grasped at the old man's ancient knife that was hanging from a nail. [...] He was trembling, the knife dropped from his hands and tinkled on the floor. (310-311) (Avramec 2000: 196)
Very concursive indeed. I bolded only the so-called "topograptical" parts, leaving the "psychological" parts out. This large amounts of concursivity occurs quite often in descriptions of "extremely important" or cataclysmic events which stand out from the rest of the plot with their violence and "unthinking" characteristic. Something similar occurs in Ray Bradbury's Fahrenheit when the fire-chief Beatty has stricken Montag a blow and after a brief exchange of words (basically, threats), Montag sets Beatty on fire: "He twitched the safety catch on the flame-thrower. Beatty glanced instantly at Montag's fingers and his eyes widened the faintest bit. Montag saw the surprise there and himself glanced to his hands to see what new thing they had done. Thinking back later he could never decide whether the hands or Beatty's reaction to the hands gave him the final push toward murder." (Bradbury 1953: 105)
Being, like the Thunderer, connected with the fire, the Dragon has a deadly glance - Murin also has a dreadful, "fiery" look: "From under the knitted brows hanging over his eyes flashed his look: fiery, feverishly inflamed, haughty and long" (268); "like lichtening, this glimpse flashed for an instant" (305); "his eyes became red as smouldering coals"; "his eyes once grew dull, once burst into bright flames" (308); "last time he fixed his dim gaze on Ordynov, but eventually even this gaze faded, and his eyelids dropped as if leaden" (309)." (Avramec 2000: 199)
I've been thinking about taking my concursive project to the next level and compiling "a concursive dictionary" which wouldn't be so much a dictionary as a collection of possible (already realized) ways to describe behavior. It would be a heavy load of work to organize these descriptions into sensible categories, because many concursive passages are "pluri-concursive," that is, describe a whole sequence of actions and reactions. Taking these apart would only amount a sketch of behaviours, while sequences express something fundamentally more meaningful, the actual impact of behaviour. In any case, it seems that these passages can be collected from secondary sources - like these kinds of articles on literature - as well. Though it'd be better if I read the book itsely and collected all the relevant passages. This is, of course, heavy work as well.
This parallel is revealed thanks to the coincidence in the "color scheme" which is equally characteristic of the "bright spirits rustling their golden and sapphire wings" and of Katerina (cf. her light blue fur jacket, blue eyes, golden smile; the constant epiteth "bright": a bright look, the smile brighter like the sun, bright character, bright eyes, cheeks) and also to a number of repeated lexical coincidences ("rustle", "serene bright jou", "song", "kiss", "bend over") in these passages of the text which speak about the spirits and the mother on the one hand, and about Katerina on the other. (Avramec 2000: 200-201)
Here the
descriptions are less than concrete, sometimes explicitly metaphorical and otherwise difficult or even impossible to decipher. Could this be the problem of abstract and concrete reference?

Pärli, Ülle 2000. The Poem "The Bronze Horseman" by A. Puškin in Estonian Culture. European Journal for Semiotic Studies 12(1): 205-XXX.

We ask an alien culture questions which it has not posited for iteslf, we seek for an answer to those questions, and an alien culture answers us, illuminating us by its new aspects, new depths of meaning. (Pärli 2000: 207)
Supplement this with: "The [...] Stranger [asks] bizarre questions which would not occur to a 'normal' person, for contesting the very distinction which for 'ordinary' people are attributes of the universe itself rather than their views of the world." (Bauman 1973: 130). Here, as representatives of "another culture" we (the researchers) are these "strangers" who ask bizarre questions which would not even occur to a representative of the target culture.
Indeed, the Russification can be understood as an attempt to implant an alien worldview into the Estonians' consciousness. This meant creating an impression of the own history through Russian history, making sense of the own culture on the basis of Russian culturas tradition, and creating and distributing the respective myhts. (Pärli 2000: 207)
Again comparing (perhaps unjustly) Russification with Americanization, there again appears a distinction in direction of influence. While Russification meant "implanting" of the Russian worldview on estonians by russians, Americanization occurd by our own free will, by implanting the "Imperialist" worldview into our own consciousness (this, of course, through quite innocent means, such as consuming Western media and entertainment). Just how far this has gone is baffling at times. Once I caught my brother watching an American reality TV show, Storage Wars, which is the penultimate low-brow entertainment, I think. I knew about the show because it was parodied by The Simpsons, so I am equally guilty.
Contradicting and complementary possibilities of interpretation have been coded into the work by the author himself. Ju. M. Lotmas has written:
The conceptual paradigm of Puškin does not form out of words, but of syncretic verbal-visual models that create the possibility of not only different but also of complementary readings (in the sense of "mevement" by M. Bohr, i.e. similarly adequately rendering and simultaneously mutually excluding). Therewith, an interpretation of a node of Puškin's structure automatically determines the concretization of a whole respective range of meanings. Hence arguments on the symbolic meaning of one or another separately viewed image of "The Broze Horseman" are senseless. (Lotman 1988: 127).
(Pärli 2000: 210)
On the basis of this quote, Lotman's monograph on Puškin sounds pretty neat. The notion of syncretic messages comes from R. Jakobson and designates exactly these "verbal-visual models" which I call concourses (convergences of the verbal and visual).


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